Initial Imposition of EU sanctions & Subsequent Amendments
EU sanctions were first imposed on North Korea in 2006, joining the UN in imposing measures in response to North Korea’s declaration that it had tested a nuclear explosive device.
EU sanctions, however, went beyond UNSC Resolution 1718 (2006) in extending its arms embargo to include the more extensive EU Common List of Military Equipment.
Further sanctions have been imposed in June 2009 in response to nuclear tests, with the EU once again broadening both the categories of persons and entities subject to asset freezes beyond the UN listing.
Another round of sanctions was imposed in response to the North Korean ballistic missile test of December 2012.
Further sanctions were imposed following North Korea’s nuclear test of September 2017.
UN sanctions are in place against North Korea, focusing on nuclear proliferation, which have provided the impetus of EU action.
Key UNSC Resolutions are 1718, 1874, 2087, 2094, 2270, 2321, 2356, 2371 and 2375.
Form of the Sanctions
Arms and related material embargo
Export ban on luxury good
Export ban of textiles from North Korea
Coal and minerals ban
Export ban of condensates and natural gas
Ban on all refined petroleum products
Restriction on the supply, sell, or transfer of crude oil
Ban on North Korean workers abroad
Other bans: statues, new helicopters and vessels
Proliferation networks measure
Interdiction and transportation measure
Prohibition on provision of bunkering services
Requirement of specialised teaching and training
Suspension of scientific and technical cooperation
Criteria for Inclusion in Targeted Measures
Categories of individuals and entities targeted by the restrictive measures are:
Scientists and business leaders involved in the North Korean nuclear and/or ballistic missile projects.
North Korean financial institutions.
Political and military leaders associated with the nuclear and/or ballistic missile programmes.
EU Provisions in Force
Council Decision 2016/849/CFSP (OJ L 141, 28 May 2016) contains: export and import restrictions; restrictions on financial support for trade; restrictions on investment; measures on the financial and transport sectors; restrictions on admission and residence; freezing of funds and economic resources; and other restrictive measures
Amended by Council Decision 2017/1838/CFSP (OJ L 261, 11 October 2017) adopted measures to align EU with UNSC Resolution 2375 (2017)
Council Regulation (EU) 2017/1509 (OJ L 224, 31 August 2017) contains: export and import restrictions; restrictions on certain commercial activities; restrictions on transfers of funds and financial services; freezing of funds and economic resources; and restrictions on transport
Amended by Council Regulation (EU) 2017/1836 (OJ L 261, 11 October 2017) further prohibitions imposed
Case Law (all actions for annulment unless otherwise specified)
No case law applicable.