The US House of Representatives has approved new sanctions on North Korea, by a majority of 419 to 1. The sanctions would prohibit ships and aircraft from using US ports if their port of origin has failed to comply with UN rules on shipments involving North Korea. They would also embargo all goods produced by North Koreans unless US authorities conclude that there was no slave labour involved in their production, and the US Department of State would also be charged with determining whether any non-US firms employing North Koreans should be made subject to sanctions for human trafficking. In order for the new sanctions to become law, they must be passed by the Senate and signed by President Trump.
The US Treasury has renewed its general licence (which authorises transactions with all entities listed on its Belarus sanctions) for 6 months, until 30 October 2017. The renewal was made by Belarus General Licence 2C, which replaces and supersedes General Licence 2B under which the authorisation was previously granted. The EU lifted most of its sanctions on Belarus in February 2016 (see previous blog).
The General Licence requires any US person to report any such transactions, or series of transactions, in excess of $50,000 to the US Department of State no later than 30 days after their execution. No new property has been unblocked by General Licence 2C.
The Lithuanian parliament has introduced a bill that, if passed, would establish “Magnitsky-style” sanctions that ban people involved in human rights abuses, corruption, or money laundering from entering Lithuania. The sanctions are named after Russian lawyer Sergei Magnitsky, whose death in Russian custody in 2009 prompted the US to introduce the first sanctions of this kind on human rights abusers in Russia. A Canadian parliamentary committee recommended that the Canadian government follow the US, UK, and several other countries in imposing Magnitsky-style sanctions earlier this month (see previous blog).
The Trump administration has announced that its strategy on North Korea will be to increase sanctions and diplomatic pressure until North Korea ends its nuclear and missile programmes. The announcement came after Trump briefed all 100 US senators, who said that no specific military option was presented to them. The South Korean president’s office also released a statement saying that South Korea and the US had agreed “to swiftly take punitive measures, including a new UN Security Council resolution, that are unbearable for the North” if North Korea continues to breach international law.
The EU has renewed its sanctions against Burma/Myanmar for another year, until 30 April 2018. The sanctions impose an embargo on providing Burma/Myanmar with arms and goods that might be used for internal repression. Before April 2013, the EU also had trade, financial, and targeted sanctions in place, but those have now been lifted (see previous blog).
As foreshadowed earlier this month (see previous blog), the US has imposed sanctions on 271 Syrian people in response to the Assad regime’s sarin attack on civilians in Idlib province on 4 April. All of the newly sanctioned people are employees of Syria’s Scientific Studies and Research Centre, the government agency responsible for developing and producing non-conventional weapons, and are said to have worked in support of SSRC’s chemical weapons programme since at least 2012. The new designations are one of the largest sanctions actions in OFAC’s history, and more than double the number of people and entities designated under US sanctions on Syria.
The US Treasury’s press release is here.
OFAC has updated its guidance / FAQs on the procedure for applying to be removed from its sanctions / SDN lists. The FAQs say that OFAC de-lists 100s of entities each year (which was not the case until recently), and that the purpose of designation is not punitive but to change behaviour (the most frequent basis for delisting is that the SDN has stopped the behavior that led to designation).
The UK government has responded to a report and recommendations by the House of Lords’ EU Justice Committee on the legality of EU sanctions (see previous blog). In its response the Government accepted:
- That the EU courts have been right to annul listings where the EU has been unable to adduce evidence supporting them, and states that the UK “has been seeking to improve the robustness of sanctions listings” in particular by providing open source evidence, and only agrees to a listing if it is satisfied that the evidence available satisfies a “reasonable grounds to suspect” test, which the Government considers to be the appropriate test.
- The concern that it takes the EU institutions too long to respond to correspondence from listed people and entities, and agreed that there should be an expedited correspondence procedure in cases of mistaken identities.
The Government disagreed with:
- The suggestion that the practice of re-listing people who have had their listings annulled by the EU courts makes those judgments inconsequential, and states that the EU would not re-list without good reason.
- The Committee’s call for open-source evidence packages substantiating sanctions listings to be provided to the scrutiny committees as a routine aspect of scrutiny due to confidentiality and diplomatic concerns.
- The suggestion that an EU Ombudsperson be created akin to the UN AQ Committee Ombudsperson.
The response also criticises the EU Court’s closed material procedure (see previous blog), but the Government’s recent White Paper plans to introduce UK closed material procedures in the UK post Brexit (on which see previous blog).